The Saxon Regional-, State- and University Library Dresden (SLUB) is one of the largest academic libraries in Germany. In its capacity as a regional library it collects publications about Saxony, as a university library, it supplies a university that covers a wide range of subjects with information material and as a state library, it coordinates the libraries in Saxony. It also runs the Dresden Centre for Digitalisation which is leading in Germany.
As a public enterprise, the library is partly funded by taxes. Its duties are regulated by Saxon law.
The library also oversees the Dresden Centre for Digitalisation (DDZ) which is one of the major digitalisation centres in Germany in public ownership. The centre is actively involved in numerous partnerships and collaborations carrying out digitalisation projects. It also has a consultative role and provides expertise in the field of digitalisation in the region of Saxony, and contributes to technology and software development. The Digitalisation Centre is responsible for the coordination of the Saxon contributions to the Digital Library and Photothek.
The "Deutsche Fotothek" (German Photograph Collection) is a facility of the SLUB and affiliated with the Digitalisation Centre. Its main aim is collecting, documenting and facilitating the wide access to the visual material. In addition to that, it is responsible for outreach projects, contributing to online presentations, exhibitions and publications. The Phototek offers insight into numerous works of German photographers and of artists based and working in Germany. Apart from photographs, the archive also contains paintings, graphics, maps and architectural drawings. With the Archive of Photographers, the Fotothek has committed itself to the task of archiving important analogue and digital images. It cooperates with a number of photographic institutions, so it has the possibility to support photographers and their descendants in their search for the right place for their archive.
- Dresden Zellescher Weg 18, Germany 01069
- The Saxon Regional State and University Library Dresden
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The Slovak National Archive (SNA) is the largest and most important public archive in the Slovak Republic. Because Slovakia had no status as an independent state, no central archive existed until the twentieth century. A Provincial Archive was first created in 1928, when a regional institution was established in Slovakia. In 1939 its agenda was taken over by the Ministry of the Interior, renamed the Archives of the Ministry of the Interior, and housed in the county building (Župný dom) in Bratislava. The Archive of the Ministry of the Interior co-operated with the central archives in Vienna and Budapest and prepared documents for the establishment of a central state archive in Slovakia.
In 1945 the archive was placed under the administration of Board of Commissioners (Zbor povereníkov – the Slovak executive body) and continued its activity as the Archive of the Slovak Interior Authority (Povereníctvo vnútra). On 20 May 1952, The Slovak Central Archive was established. Its basic purpose was to gather and make available archival material of national importance, but it also was responsible for directing and controlling all regional, district, and municipal archives in Slovakia. On 1 October 1954, The Slovak State Central Archive was established on the basis of a government regulation. It began to gather archival material of national significance in repositories at Červený Kameň Castle and in Bratislava. In 1955, the archive acquired its own building on Križkova Street in Bratislava. In 1975, The Slovak State Central Archive was renamed The State Central Archive of the Slovak Socialist Republic.
Political and social changes that have occurred since 1989 are reflected in the renaming of The State Central Archive to its current form, the Slovak National Archive.
SNA holdings are divided into two departments: older funds, and new funds. The department of older funds holds historical documents from the twelfth to twentieth centuries in several languages, and consists of 2,624 linear meters of records. It includes 383 archive collections of church institutions, noble families, and their feudal lordship and inferior nobility. There are also personal archive collections (126 personal funds), created by the activities of important Slovak personalities from political, economic, cultural and other spheres of public life. In addition to the classical archive funds, the department also includes 56 archive collections created by institutions and individuals.
The department of new funds was established on 1 July 1993. At present, this department administers 351 archive collections, which were collected by the highest authorities of state power and administration from the period of the First Czechoslovak Republic, The Slovak Republic (1939–1945), and post-war Czechoslovakia; these collections cover the period from 1918 until 1968 and contain 23 818 linear meters of documents.
In the period after 1945, the basic archive funds include documents from The Slovak National Council, the Board of Commissioners and other central offices in Slovakia. At present, less than half of the material is available for research purposes from the total of archive documents managed by the department.
- Bratislava Drotárska cesta 42, Slovakia 811 02
- The Slovak National Archive
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The establishment of the Slovak Office for Press and Information (Slovenský úrad pre tlač a informácie, SÚTI) on 4 September 1968 was one of the first steps backward to conditions preceding the Prague Spring. The creation of SÚTI followed the foundation of the Office for Press and Information (Úrad pre tlač a informácie) on 30 August 1968. Its main task was to regulate and to supervise the ideational focus of press, broadcast, and television. Simultaneously, it was supposed to become the leading consultative platform of the Central Committee and particular editorial offices. The Office’s administration also took over the former agenda of the Ministry of Culture and Information concerning the cadre's policy of publishers and individual editorial offices.
The foundation of SÚTI was a direct implementation of the principles included in Moscow protocols, which aimed to bring mass media back under ideological control. Its inner structure formed the department of propaganda, department of assessment and department of the press. The central activities of SÚTI concerned the systematic production and accumulation of explicit assessments and analyses, that were consequently sent to the Department of Propaganda and Agitation (Oddelenia propagandy a agitácie) of the Central Committee of the Slovak Communist Party. The leading task was to achieve the ideological “purity” of mass media. In the case of the revelation of a discrepancy between the published content and consolidating tactics, there were imposed certain sanctions against publishers.After the dissolution of the Office in 1990, the whole documentation was taken over by the Slovak National Archive.
The Theatre of the Eighth Day is one of the best known Polish theatre groups. Its roots can be traced to the student counterculture movement of the 1960s. It was firstly animated by the group of students from the Polish Studies at Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań. The name of the group „Student Poetry Theatre The Eighth Day” derives its meaning from the play Green Goose Theatre written by Konstanty Ildefons Gałczyński, Polish poet from the interwar period (1918-1939).
What was particular about the Theatre of the Eighth Day, is the cosy atmosphere and very strong personal ties among the members of the group. For them, “The Eights” were not only an artistic milieu and a performance team, but also the life style and the community of people with similar political views. They underlined the communitarian value of the Theatre, as well as the shared responsibility for their work, actions and colleagues. The main artistic inspiration for the Theatre of the Eighth Day, were the activities of Jerzy Grotowski, Polish modern theatre director and theorist. The events of the so-called March 1968 in Poland (anti-regime protests and anti-semitic backlash from the communist party) greatly influenced the work of the Theatre.
During the years, over 100 people worked and cooperated with the Theatre. The first leader of the group was Tomasz Szymański. The crew often used Polish and world literature for reference and inspiration, including Stefan Żeromski (Polish modern writer from the turn of 20th century), Julian Tuwim (Polish poet from the interwar period), Fyodor Dostoyevsky, Albert Camus, Anna Akhmatova, Osip Mandelstam or Francois Villon.
In 1968 Lech Raczak became the artistic director of the theatre. First play under his guidance was entitled Introduction to…(1970) and ridiculed the cult of Lenin, showing the hypocrisy of communist society.
In 1971 the Theatre showed the play In one breath, which openly referred to the events of March 1968 and December 1970 (workers’ protests and brutal response from authorities). The group was also inspired by the poetry of Stanisław Barańczak (poet and translator from Poznań). This play was also presented with success in Great Britain and Nederland.
In the beginning of the 1970s, the group started to use more spectacular artistic forms and opened itself to new audiences. They organized open air shows, e.g. The Integration (1972), coproduced with the group „Od nowa” [Anew] and jazzmen from „Laboratorium” band. The theatre group also changed its composition – in 1973 new people joined the Theatre, with only Lech Raczak left from the founding team. The first play of the new “Eights” was Inspection of a crime scene, based on several works by Albert Camus. In 1975 the Theatre of the Eighth Day used Dostoyevky’s Brothers Karamazov to create the play We must confine ourselves to an earthly paradise, since that’s what they call it…?.
The Theatre of the Eighth Day had a clear vision of an actor as a revolutionist and a rebel. The members of the group underlined the necessity of constant action, self-awareness and self-improvement. This led to courageously taking a political stand and expressing political views. In 1976 members of the Theatre signed an open letter against the changes in the Polish constitution and supported Workers’ Defence Committee (KOR), a democratic opposition group of intelligentsia aiding oppressed workers. This adamant political attitude of course resulted in repressions from the communist authorities: members of “The Eights” were arrested, interrogated and searched. They were denied passports, couldn’t leave the country or perform in public institutions, their professional careers were undermined.
Especially in the 1970s and the 1980s the performances of „The Eights” were censored and denied access to public scenes on everyday basis. There was also a press ban on writing anything positive about the Theater of the Eighth Day in the press – mentioning their international success or new plays was not allowed. Plays performed in the late 1970s - Sale for everybody (1977) and Oh, have we lived in dignity (1979) - are regarded as the most important performances in the Polish alternative theatre of that period.
Shortly after that, in 1979, the group was acknowledged by state institutions as a professional theatre.
However, the introduction of the martial law in Poland (1981) hindered all activities of “The Eights” – repressions took new forms and intensity. From 1982 to 1984 The Theatre of the Eighth Day was not allowed to visit international theatre festivals it was invited to attend, in Italy, Spain, Denmark, Sweden and Switzerland. In 1984 the authorities of the Polish Ministry of Culture and local authorities of the city of Poznań banned the Theater of the Eighth Day from performing publicly, confiscated their facilities and withheld financial donations. In this situation, the Theatre was forced to perform mainly in churches.
Against all odds, the group was striving to function. They produced the play A fablebased on William Faulkner (1982), Ascent (1982) and shows: Report from a city under siege (1983), Miracles and Meat (1984) and Wormwood (1985). However, constant instability and repressions forced members of the group to emigrate. Not all of them received the passports they applied for, which most probably was a deliberate move of the authorities in order to divide the artistic milieu. The split group worked simultaneously in Poland (where it realized The small apocalypse) and in Western Europe (play Auto-da-fe). In the following years, most of the members of “The Eights” managed to move to Italian Ferrara and continued working together. Among the performances realized in Western Europe were If, on a certain day, in a happy town… (1986) and Meat (1989).
After 1989, “The Eights” returned to their hometown – Poznań. In 1991 they showed the first play after their return No man’s land. Two years later, an open air show Sabatwas staged in Poznań. In 1994 Lech Raczak was replaced by Ewa Wójciak as the director of the Theatre of the Eighth Day.
In the new, post-socialist reality, the poetics of rebellion and counterculture were less appealing to the audience. However, the Theatre tries to continue their mode of living and performing even in changed social conditions. They educate and raise new generations of artists, organize artistic events and participate in international theatre festivals.
- Poznań, Poland
- The Theatre of the Eighth Day
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The Juraj Dobrila University of Pula was officially established on September 29, 2006, but its beginnings date back to 1960, when the first higher school of economics was opened in Pula, followed by the Pedagogical Academy the next year. The University and its components are an important part of the educational and cultural history of Istria in the 20th and 21st centuries, and the University Library of Pula has a special role in preserving the cultural heritage of Istria.
The Library was established under the name Research Library in 1949 and it operated independently until it was merged with the University of Rijeka and changed its name to the University Library in 1979. It has been a part of the Juraj Dobrila University of Pula since 2006. The Library has received a mandatory copy of select publications from Croatia since 1951 and a mandatory copy of everything printed in Croatia since 1956. Based on the above-mentioned regulations, copies of the Istrian Fighter/IBOR were also submitted to the Library.
The Library has a large number of materials that testify to the struggle to preserve the Croatian identity in Istria. The Library's digitization project involves a high number of books, newspapers, manuscripts and journals, of which a significant number is in the Croatian language. These publications include:IBOR: the Voice of Istrian Youth (IBOR: glas mladih Istre), Istrian Fighter: Istrian National Youth Journal (Istarski borac: list narodne omladine Istria), The People's lord (Narodni gospodar), Croatian School (Hrvatska škola), The People's Schooling (Narodno školovanje) and Young Istrian (Mali Istranin). Croatian language in Istria was nurtured by the youth journals Istrian Fighter and its successor IBOR during the socialist period.