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The anti-Soviet armed rebellion in Lithuania started in 1944, and lasted until 1953. For nine years, there were actions in Lithuania which some describe as Lithuania’s war. We can distinguish several unique features of the partisan movement. During the entire active period, a supreme leadership was created, until finally in 1949, meeting for the first time, people representing all the partisans of Lithuania carried out a phenomenal action: they summed up the struggle for freedom, formulated its essence, and prepared military and political documents. The armed partisan resistance is divided into three periods: 1) from 1944 to 1946; 2) from the summer of 1946 to 1948; and 3) from 1949 to 1953.
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- Lithuanian Anti-Soviet Partisan Movement
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The Archdiocesan Archives in Ljubljana is an institution that preserves church records. It was established in 1911. The first archivist was Franc Pokorn. Its role during the communist period was to preserve the archival records of the Ljubljana (arch)diocese. Its activities were critical to preservation of church records, especially the personal collections of the archbishops.
Its staff was loyal to the Catholic Church and since the Church was discriminated against and persecuted, they felt a certain reserve toward the regime. The staff was mix of clergy and lay people. They were dedicated to their mission, to preserve the church’s archival records. Their activity is still important after the fall of communism, because they systemized and made the collections available to the public.
The role of the Archdiocesan Archives was crucial in maintaining collections vitali to the history of the church and its activities in the territory of the Ljubljana Archdiocese as well as providing help to parish archives in the territory of the archdiocese as well as other Slovenian regions.
Because of its exceptional value to national history, the Archdiocesan Archives in Zagreb is organizationally subordinated to the Department of the Croatian State Archives in Zagreb. It began operating immediately after the Zagreb Diocese was established in 1094. Due to the date of its establishment, it is the oldest archive in the inland part of Croatia. Namely, in 1914, the Zagreb Archdiocese concluded an agreement with the Royal Croatian-Slavonian-Dalmatian Government on the terms of storage of the records in the Royal Territorial Archives for fifty years. The same agreement stipulated that the Metropolitan Library of the Archdiocese of Zagreb would also be deposited at the then Royal University Library. Today, the Croatian State Archives has the Zagreb Archdiocese Department, which consists of two parts: the Archdiocesan Archives and the Metropolitan Library. At the beginning of the 1980s, the archival materials were relocated from the then National Archives of Croatia on Marulić square 21 to the addresses Kaptol 27 and 31, where the Archdiocesan Archives are today, while the Metropolitan Library remained at the same address. Besides the documentation of the archdiocese, the archives also hold the materials of various associations related to the Zagreb Archdiocese, then of archbishops, auxiliary bishops, deacons, parishes and personal archives of many laypersons.
The oldest document in the archives is Felician's Charter from 1134. Likewise, the archives contain abundant materials on the relationship between the Zagreb Church and the Universal Church, as well as the political, economic and cultural role of the Zagreb Church and its bishops. The most important sort of archival materials were taken by Bishop Maksimilijan Vrhovac at the turn of the 18th into the 19th century. Namely, historian and archivist Martin J. Kovačić and his son Josip N. Kovačić divided the archbishop's archives of the time into ten thematic categories, including theory, privileges, tithes, economic writings, court records, ecclesiastical writings, ecclesiastical administration documents, founding documents and expropriation documents. Likewise, both of them also processed the correspondence of Zagreb bishops in the period from 1611 to 1815. The archives have great importance to the history of the Zagreb Archdiocese, but also northern Croatia in general. it is certainly of great importance are The canonical visitations of the Zagreb bishops and the scriptures of Zagreb bishops from the 12th to 20th centuries certainly have great importance, as do the writings of archdeacons about political, religious and cultural circumstances in the territory of the Zagreb Archdiocese from 1615 to the most recent times.
- Zagreb Kaptol ulica 27/A, Croatia 10000
- Archdiocesan Archives in Zagreb
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The Transylvanian bishopric founded around the turn of the first millennium played a significant role during the Medieval Age. In this respect both the bishopric and the chapter may have possessed a significant amount of archival materials. Similarly, the archival records of other church centres, the other Hungarian archdioceses and episcopates suffered enormous losses over the centuries. Based on parallels it can be assumed with certainty that a large number of original diplomas were collected also in Alba Iulia. Furthermore, on the basis of the authentic local activity it can also be safely presumed that documents pertaining to the operation of the public authorities in the whole of Transylvania as well as other records related to private-law activity and family deposits were stored up. Besides this public notarial activity, also documents linked to the private properties and operation of the chapter were kept here.
For centuries, the chapter archives were located in the ground-floor hall of the south tower of the cathedral in Alba Iulia. According to the situation in 1940 the chapter archives were situated in three different places: in the Batthyaneum, in the chapter-house (audit-room), and under the southern tower. After World War II, the episcopal archives were reorganised by clerical persons who lacked archival knowledge. As a consequence, documents pertaining to the same subject were accessible in separate places and thus the study of files was rendered practically impossible to the uninitiated.
Following the change of regime in Romania, the idea of rearranging the archives was brought up in the early 1990s by Lajos Cicutti, a retired jurist based in Rome, and the leaders of the Archdiocese of Alba Iulia as well as Hungarian archivists were won over to this cause. In 1997 they initiated the work and a year later the preliminary surveying of the material took place. By the end of October 1998 they drew-up the first detailed arrangement proposal which included suggestions regarding the up-to-date storage of the material. The actual document organisation work was commenced in the spring of 1999 and the Archbishopric Archives of Alba Iulia at that time opened its doors to the general public. At the beginning, the arrangement works proceeded slowly since first they had to properly disinfect the infected part of the stored material. This procedure took place in several stages between December 2000 and April 2001 in the paper restoration laboratory of the Museum in Alba Iulia. The initially basic-level and then predominantly intermediate-level arrangement of the material in Alba Iulia had been completed by the beginning of 2003. Furthermore, in August 2002, the surveying of the archival material of the former Transylvanian Catholic Status was performed in Cluj-Napoca. Also here, the arrangement and survey of the stored records made it necessary to create a proper facility with up-to-date equipment, which had been completed by the summer of the following year.
In 2003 the Chief Diocesan Office launched an archival value-saving programme with the circular written by Archbishop György Jakubinyi. In this regard the stored documents of the parishes existing on the territory of the chief diocese were collected mainly with Hungarian state funding and structured in the district centres of the cathedral deanery. It was at that time that the name of the archives was changed to Archdiocesan Archives of Alba Iulia. So far nine archives have been founded in the following cities: Alba Iulia (2003), Gherla (2005), Sfântu Gheorghe (2005), Târgu Mureș (2005), Gheorgheni (2007), Odorheiu Secuiesc (2008), Gherla (Armenian Catholic 2010), Cluj-Napoca (2011), and Miercurea Ciuc (2016). These archival centres store the systematised, researchable archival files of 80% of the parishes that make up the diocese.
Beside the central Archiepiscopal and Capitular Archives, the Chief Diocesan Archives also include the Archives of the Theological School in Alba Iulia, which are housed in the building of the Seminary, where the records began to be organised in 2004, and the already mentioned Archives of the Transylvanian Catholic Status in Cluj-Napoca, where the arrangement of the archival material was completed by 2005. At the organisation of the diocesan and the status archives, in creating the system of fonds and sub-fonds the archivists had very few examples to guide them. At that time the structuring of Catholic archives in the country was only in few places taken to the level where they could rely on their own experience and repertoires as archival support had not been published anywhere yet. It was an obvious basic principle for them that it would be proper to adapt themselves to the organisation guidelines established in Hungarian Catholic church archives; however, due to the special situation of Transylvania these guidelines could not be fully applied in the course of their work.
So far, on the territory of the Chief Diocese a document file stock measuring 1,800 linear metres has been processed. Out of this, 1,000 linear metres are located in Alba Iulia, consisting of the files of the central offices, while 800 linear metres represent source material of parochial origin, and approximately 300 consist of the archives of church administrative units (archiepiscopate, parish, subsidiary parish). Archival research is facilitated by the five repertoire volumes published so far, which are also accessible in electronic format on the website of the institution.
The Archdiocesan Central Archives in Alba Iulia, the Archiepiscopal and Capitular Archives, which also stores the Áron Márton Memorial Collection, operates in seven renovated and professionally equipped rooms on the ground floor of the metropolitan palace. The premises of 200 m2 stores archival material amounting to approximately 1,000 linear metres which is continuously increasing. Here are stored the historical files of the Episcopal Office, the archival fragments of the advisory body of the Transylvanian bishop, i.e., the Chapter, the church school and economic documents, other valuable collections, such as civil status registrars’ duplicates, personal legacies or diplomas. The files have been arranged in seven fonds, as follows: I. Episcopal Archives; II. Chapter Archives; III. Economic Archives; V. Archives of Other Structures; VI. Personal Legacy; VII. Collections. The fourth fonds not mentioned here (IV. Fonds group) is the Archives of the Transylvanian Catholic Status which is situated in Cluj-Napoca.